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Nail Problems

Nail Problems

“Did you know that nails can reveal clues to your overall health?”

1) Ridging of the nail:

Can be either along (longitudinal) or across (transverse) plane of the nail.
Longitudinal ridging causes:

  • A. Prominent with increasing age
  • B. Rheumatoid arthritis
  • C. Lichen planus
  • D. Injury to the nail.
  • E. Transverse ridging causes:
    • a) Longstanding or severe eczema around the nail fold
    • b) Trauma

2) Thickening of the nail:

Seen frequently in the toenails of the elderly.

  • A. Long term use of ill-fitting footwear /neglect of the nails.
  • B. Psoriasis
  • C.Fungal infection

3) In growing Toenail:

Often presents with pain, but may progress to infection results in difficulty while walking.
Causes :-

  • A. Improperly trimmed nails
  • B. Hyperhidrosis
  • C. Poorly fitting shoes.

4) Leukonychia (white nail):

  • A. Congenital
  • B. Minor trauma
  • C. Hypoalbuminaemia in chronic liver disease
  • D. Renal failure
  • E. Fungal infection.

5) Onycholysis:

Nail becomes detached from its bed at base and side

  • A. Psoriasis
  • B. Idiopathic or inherited
  • C. Systemic disease, e.g. thyrotoxicosis
  • D. Skin disease e.g. psoriasis
  • E. Local causes e.g. trauma or chemicals.

6) Fungal Nail Infections:

Also called as onychomycosis (OM)/tineaunguium

  • A. Fungal nail infections are most often seen in adults.
  • B. Often follow fungal infection of the feet.
  • C. More often in toenails than in fingernails.

You are at higher risk of getting a fungal nail infection if you:

  • A. Get manicures or pedicures with tools that have been used on other people
  • B. Have minor skin or nail injuries
  • C. Have deformed nail or nail disease
  • D. Have moist skin for a long time
  • E. Have immune system problems
  • F. Wear closed footwear
  • 7) Symptoms:
  • A. Brittleness
  • B. Change in nail shape
  • C. Crumbling of the outside edges of the nail
  • D. Debris trapped under the nail
  • E. Loosening or lifting up of the nail
  • F. Loss of luster and shine
  • G. Thickening of the nail
  • H. White or yellow streaks on the side of the nail
  • 8 ) Beau’s lines:

    Depressions across the fingernail.
    seen in:Illness
    Injury to the nail

    9) Brittle nails:

    • A. Aging.
    • B. Certain diseases and conditions.

    10) Koilonychia :

    • A. Also called as spoon-shaped nails.
    • B. Nail has raised ridges and is thin and curved inward.
    • C. Associated with iron deficiency anaemia.

    11) Pitting of nail plate:

    • A. Small depressions on the nail surface
    • B. Eczema
    • C. Psoriasis
    • D. Alopecia areata

    12) Nail in Psoriasis:

    Abnormalities include nail pitting

    • A. Transverse furrows
    • B. Crumbling nail plate
    • C. Roughened nails
    • D. Nail bed shows ‘oil spot’, distal onycholysis, distal subungual hyperkeratosis
    • E. Splinter haemorrhages and false nail following spontaneous separation of nail plate.

    13) Nail in Lichen planus :

    • A. Thinning, brittleness, crumbling of the nail with accentuated surface longitudinal ridging.
    • B. Colour change to black or white.
    • C. Chronic inflammation causes either partial or complete loss of nail plate and formation of pterygium with partial loss of central nail plate seen as distal notch or completely split nail.
    • D. Involvement of nail bed causes onycholysis, distal subungual hyperkeratosis, formation of bulla or permanent loss of nail.

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